Defining areas of energy performance to manage a training process has great importance. On the base of them sets direction and effectiveness of training exercises and the distribution of the training load at all stages of the athlete’s preparation. The formation of ideas about the areas of energy’s performance is significantly influenced by the work of V.S. Farfel (1946). There are different approaches to the definition of the boundaries of zones and their physiological basis.
Sergey Gordon, doctor of Education, emeritus professor of Swimming Department of RGUFKSiT&T
Common approach to all cyclic sports is determined by the ratio of power and limit exercises’ time, as well as by physiological indicators that reflect the essence of occurring processes in a given zone. Since the absolute values of the physiological parameters depend on the sports’ discipline, qualification of athletes and their specialisation expertise in distance of different length, it is advisable to express physiological indicators in relative units.
All exercises by ultimate execution time can be divided into two large groups. The criterion for their separation is the time of changing of the general and individual curve of records in a double log-log graph «power (speed) — time.» A breakpoint is close in time to 180 C and varies depending on the specialization at distances of varying lengths.
All exercises are divided into two groups: with time less than 180 C, preferably with an anaerobic metabolism, and eventually more than 180 C, mostly with aerobic orientation. This division is confirmed by the practice. So, in sporting swimming in 200 m swims in the time, close to the point of this section, the consumption of oxygen and at the distance approximately equal to the oxygen debt. The best achievements in this race in the history of swimming port passed from hand sprinters and stayers. Relay 4 x 200 m free is also typically formed of sprinters and stayers.
Currently, various authors highlighted the following five areas: alactat-glycolytic, aerobic glycolysis, mixed aerobic and anaerobic-aerobic-anaerobic and aerobic. Analyse of experimental metabolism’s data of physiological exercises of varying duration, mathematical modelling, practice of using of training exercises and the training load’s distribution permit determine the following zones and timing borders:
Zone V — alaktate-glycolytic with temporal limits 0-40 C, which, in its turn, is divided into Va to 8-10 with in priority kriatine-phosphate metabolism and Vb mixed anaerobic software. Exercises of Zone Va in swimming are primarily aimed for improving the speeding capabilities and improving of swim technic at high speeds. The length of training segments is 12-15 meters. Most exercises are performed across the pool. The rest between repetitions is usually no more than 1-2 minutes. At the parametric training the quantity of repetitions is up to 30 or more times. Exercises of Zone Vb are also applied to re-training. The length of segments is 50 m and more. The number of segments is limited. The speeds are close to the competitive. By increasing the number of repetitions of the exercise goes into zone IV.
Zone IV – pre-emptive of anaerobic glycolysis with boundaries with 40-180 C, which, in turn, is divided into sub IVa to 100 с, where there is the maximum oxygen debt and IVb from 100 to 180 «lactate tolerance.» Exercises of this area are carried out after pre aerobic orientation, because adaptation to aerobic exercise is the basis for the further development of anaerobic capacity. Exercises are usually performed at segments of 50 m with repetition and intervals. So, the swim of 50 m 4 times and rest 15 sec will be on the border of III and IV of Zone III Zone — mixed aerobic-anaerobic glycolysis with the boundaries of 180-900 C, divided into subzones IIIa with time to 420 seconds (7 minutes), where there is the maximum operating level of oxygen consumption, and subzone IIIb from 7 minutes to 15 minutes (900 seconds) with a high operating level submaximal oxygen consumption.
Interval training in the area of extreme type IIIa consists of overcoming the 30 x 4-6 times, 60 x 3-4 times. Oxygen consumption reaches its maximum. In some cases, with a small amount of repetitions and high intensity trained athletes reach their maximum oxygen debt and fall into a zone IVb.
Exercises of IIIb zone consist of overcoming 30 s x 8-12 times, 60 s x 8 times, with a 120 s x 4 times. The level of oxygen’s consumption 0,92-0,98 of working maximum, heart rate reaches 0,88-0,94. At the end of the exercises there is a significant oxygen debt, amounting to a maximum 0,63-0,94 of maximum. Exercises of this group are associated with significant functional loads and are suitable for an athlete after a preliminary preparation for the end of the preparatory period. In the pauses of rest the oxygen’s consumption by the end of the exercises may exceed consumption by operating segments, respectively, while decreases in heart rate and increased stroke’s heart volume.
II zone — mixed mostly aerobic glycolysis with the boundaries of the 900 s (15 min) to 1800 s (30 min), where the level of consumption rather high, but below the level of the request, approximately a qualified athlete in the end zone there is a threshold of anaerobic metabolism (ANSP).
Distance’s training exercises can be divided into two large groups. The first consists of exercises performed in the competition «in full force». These exercises, in spite of their high efficiency, occupy a small portion of the training process. This is because of the stressful nature of such exercises and a small amount potential volume in training. Exceptions are exercises at ultrashort segments within 8-10 seconds and are a separate group with a primary criatiphosphate metabolism.
In the second group are the exercise in the aerobic zone Ia and Ib constituting not less than 50% of the total load in a year macrocycle of qualified athletes. In some sports distance’s exercises constitute the main part of the load (cycling road races, cross-country skiing). In other sports some aerobic load combines with a relatively high intensity. So, in sports’ swimming athletes overcome in one training session to 10×400 m 5×800 m 6×1000 m 3×1500 m and more. Distance’s exercises are used for a wide range of tasks by improving the endurance to improve the technology and discharging after intense exercise.
For the selection of distances’ exercises in a year macrocycle can be used the dependence of «speed — time.» In the simplest case it is necessary to choose the basic distance of a distinct physiological orientation. Time base for determining the distance to the between and under of I and II zones can be a work for 30 minutes. This work will be close to the threshold of anaerobic metabolism, but, of course, exactly the same as with the ANSPs will not. But this approach seems possible to calculate the necessary speed of the stages of preparation and control it. Distance’s training exercises can be divided into two large groups. The first consists of exercises performed at the competitions.
«In the full force.» These exercises, in spite of their high efficiency, occupy a small portion of the training process. It is because of the stressful nature of such exercises and a small amount of potential in training. Exceptions are exercises in the ultrashort segments 6-8 and are a separate group with a primary criatyphosphate metabolism.
|Relative power N / N max||1,0-0,99||0,99-0,64||0,64-0,43||0,43-0,32||0,32-0,29||0,29-0,25||0,25-0,22||0,22-0,18|
|Level of O2 inquiries regarding RO2’ / RO2’ max||1,0-0,99||0,99-0,67||0,67-0,48||0,48-0,34||0,34-0,30||0,30-0,25||0,25-0,22||0,22-0,19|
|Level of O2 consumption relative VO2’ / VO2’ max||0,22-0,36||0,36-0,80||0,80-0,97||0,97-1,0||1,0-0,98||0,98-0,92||0,92-0,84||0,84-0,72|
|Debt relative DO2’ / DO2’ max||0,30-0,48||0,48-0,88||0,88-1,00||1,00-0,96||0,96-0,92||0,92-0,63||0,63-0,40||0,40-0,24|
|HR / HR max||0,70-0,74||0,74-0,92||0,92-1,00||1,00-0,97||0,97-0,94||0,94-0,88||0,88-0,83||0,83-0,78|
|Lact / Lact max||0,30-0,44||0,44-0,82||0,82-1,00||1,00-0,98||0,98-0,82||0,82-0,60||0,60-0,36||0,36-0,16|
|Performance / efficiency max||0,41||0,63||0,65||0,67||0,71||0,75||0,8||0,85|
Isolated border on time largely conventional and do not always correspond accurately specified physiological parameters. They will vary depending on the qualifications, specialisation and sporting form.
The table are showing the basic physiological indicators in relative terms in different zones obtained from experimental data and results of mathematical modelling for swimmers specializing in the 100 and 200 m and rowers in 2000 m. The practical training specialists are guided by the speed of exercise. However, physiological changes and energy consumption take place in accordance with the power developed by the athlete which is a cube function of speed. If you have athlete’s individual data, using coefficients of the table have the opportunity to calculate all the main indicators contained in the whole range of distances. specialisations are different. Also, data of corresponding are changing of during annual training macrocycle. So, with further qualification of master of sports, exercise 50×4 with the rest of 15 s will move into the zone IVb, 50×8 exercise and 50×12 — in zone IIIa, 50×16 and exercises 50×20 — in zone IIIb, exercises 50×30 and 50×40 will remain in the II zone.
Photos from archives of Dmitry Volkov, English translation: Serge Wodes